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TitleAssessing the feasibility of eHealth and mHealth: a systematic review and analysis of initiatives implemented in Kenya.
AuthorsNjoroge, M; Zurovac, D; Ogara, EA; Chuma, J; Kirigia, D
JournalBMC research notes
Publication Date10 Feb 2017
Date Added to PubMed12 Feb 2017
AbstractThe growth of Information and Communication Technology in Kenya has facilitated implementation of a large number of eHealth projects in a bid to cost-effectively address health and health system challenges. This systematic review aims to provide a situational analysis of eHealth initiatives being implemented in Kenya, including an assessment of the areas of focus and geographic distribution of the health projects. The search strategy involved peer and non-peer reviewed sources of relevant information relating to projects under implementation in Kenya. The projects were examined based on strategic area of implementation, health purpose and focus, geographic location, evaluation status and thematic area. A total of 114 citations comprising 69 eHealth projects fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The eHealth projects included 47 mHealth projects, 9 health information system projects, 8 eLearning projects and 5 telemedicine projects. In terms of projects geographical distribution, 24 were executed in Nairobi whilst 15 were designed to have a national coverage but only 3 were scaled up. In terms of health focus, 19 projects were mainly on primary care, 17 on HIV/AIDS and 11 on maternal and child health (MNCH). Only 8 projects were rigorously evaluated under randomized control trials. This review discovered that there is a myriad of eHealth projects being implemented in Kenya, mainly in the mHealth strategic area and focusing mostly on primary care and HIV/AIDs. Based on our analysis, most of the projects were rarely evaluated. In addition, few projects are implemented in marginalised areas and least urbanized counties with more health care needs, notwithstanding the fact that adoption of information and communication technology should aim to improve health equity (i.e. improve access to health care particularly in remote parts of the country in order to reduce geographical inequities) and contribute to overall health systems strengthening.
TitleA Review of Usability Evaluation Methods and Their Use for Testing eHealth HIV Interventions.
AuthorsDavis, R; Gardner, J; Schnall, R
JournalCurrent HIV/AIDS reports
Publication Date1 Jun 2020
Date Added to PubMed12 May 2020
AbstractTo provide a comprehensive review of usability testing of eHealth interventions for HIV. We identified 28 articles that assessed the usability of eHealth interventions for HIV, most of which were published within the past 3 years. The majority of the eHealth interventions for HIV was developed on a mobile platform and focused on HIV prevention as the intended health outcome. Usability evaluation methods included eye-tracking, questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, contextual interviews, think-aloud protocols, cognitive walkthroughs, heuristic evaluations and expert reviews, focus groups, and scenarios. A wide variety of methods is available to evaluate the usability of eHealth interventions. Employing multiple methods may provide a more comprehensive assessment of the usability of eHealth interventions as compared with inclusion of only a single evaluation method.
TitleA Missing Link: HIV-/AIDS-Related mHealth Interventions for Health Workers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
AuthorsGimbel, S; Kawakyu, N; Dau, H; Unger, JA
JournalCurrent HIV/AIDS reports
Publication Date1 Dec 2018
Date Added to PubMed28 Sep 2018
AbstractThrough a review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on HIV mobile health (mHealth) tools for health workers and in-depth interviews with mHealth leaders in the field, we provide a synthesis of current work and propose mHealth research priorities for HIV prevention, care, and treatment. Significant investment in implementation research and bringing together researchers capable of identifying drivers of successful implementation and industry leaders capable of bringing efficacious tools to scale are needed to move this area forward. Effective and appropriate technologies to support health systems in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries are needed to improve the efficiency and quality of health service delivery and ultimately improve health outcomes. Although a growing number of HIV mHealth tools have been developed to support health workers, few of these tools have been rigorously evaluated and even fewer have been brought to scale.
TitleHealth Behavior Theory to Enhance eHealth Intervention Research in HIV: Rationale and Review.
AuthorsSimoni, JM; Ronen, K; Aunon, FM
JournalCurrent HIV/AIDS reports
Publication Date1 Dec 2018
Date Added to PubMed5 Dec 2018
AbstractOptimal design and evaluation of eHealth interventions requires the specification of behavioral targets and hypothesized mechanisms of action-both of which can be enhanced with the use of established health behavior theories (HBTs). In this paper, we describe the major HBTs and examine their use in studies of eHealth interventions for HIV prevention and treatment and assess the contribution of HBT in developing and evaluating eHealth interventions. Based on our review of the literature, we argue the field can benefit from more systematic selection, application, and reporting of HBT. We highlight theories specifically designed for eHealth and describe ways that HBT can be used by researchers and practitioners to improve the rigor and impact of eHealth interventions for individuals living with or at risk for HIV. This brief overview of HBTs and their application to eHealth intervention in HIV research has underscored the importance of a theoretically intentional approach. The theory should be used to inform the design of the eHealth intervention; the intervention should not determine the theory. A theory-driven iterative model of eHealth intervention development may not only improve our repertoire of effective strategies but also has the potential to expand our theoretical and empirical knowledge of health behavior change.
TitleInterest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated factors among high-risk drug users enrolled in methadone maintenance program.
AuthorsShrestha, R; Karki, P; Copenhaver, M
JournalAIDS care
Publication Date1 Sep 2017
Date Added to PubMed10 May 2017
AbstractThe adoption of mobile technologies for health (mHealth) in healthcare has grown considerably in recent years, but systematic assessment of interest in the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs (PWUD) is lacking. We therefore examined interest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated individual-level factors among high-risk PWUD enrolled in methadone maintenance program. A total of 400 HIV-negative PWUD, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors completed a standardized assessment using audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI). Results revealed significant interest in using mHealth-based approaches for specific purposes, including: to receive medication reminders (72.3%), to receive information about HIV risk reduction (65.8%), and to assess HIV risk behaviors (76.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that interest in receiving medication reminders was associated with currently taking medication and being neurocognitively impaired, whereas interest in receiving HIV-risk reduction information was associated with being non-white, married, and perceiving the person was at high-risk for contracting HIV. Similarly, participants' interested in using mHealth for HIV risk behavior assessment was associated with having recently visited a healthcare provider and exhibiting depressive symptoms. Overall, this study demonstrated that high-risk PWUD are interested in using mHealth-based tools as a key part of an HIV prevention approach within a common type of drug treatment settings. Thus, formative research on preferences for design and functionality of mHealth-based HIV prevention tools are now needed, followed by practical development, implementation, and evaluation of these new intervention strategies.
TitleImplementation of eHealth Interventions Across the HIV Care Cascade: a Review of Recent Research.
AuthorsKemp, CG; Velloza, J
JournalCurrent HIV/AIDS reports
Publication Date1 Dec 2018
Date Added to PubMed2 Sep 2018
AbstractWe review recent implementation science focusing on eHealth interventions to improve outcomes along the HIV care cascade. We highlight several gaps in the eHealth implementation literature and propose areas for future study. We identified 17 studies conducted in North America, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa assessing the acceptability, appropriateness, adoption, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, or sustainability of eHealth interventions targeting the HIV care cascade. Most interventions used SMS messages to improve cascade outcomes. Feasibility research has demonstrated the importance of adaptability for intervention scale-up and delivery. Key gaps in the literature remain related to predictors of the adoption of eHealth interventions by health facilities and staff. In addition, no studies explored sustainability and few used theoretical frameworks for implementation research or validated measures of implementation outcomes. We propose next steps for the future of eHealth implementation research to inform the delivery, scale-up, and maintenance of eHealth interventions in the real world.
TitleExamining the Acceptability of mHealth Technology in HIV Prevention Among High-Risk Drug Users in Treatment.
AuthorsShrestha, R; Huedo-Medina, TB; Altice, FL; Krishnan, A; Copenhaver, M
JournalAIDS and behavior
Publication Date1 Nov 2017
Date Added to PubMed28 Dec 2016
AbstractDespite promising trends of the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) based strategies to a broad range of health conditions, very few if any studies have been done in terms of the examining the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs in treatment. Thus, the goal of this study was to gain insight into the real-world acceptance of mHealth approaches among high-risk people who use drugs in treatment. A convenience sample of 400 HIV-negative drug users, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors, were recruited from a methadone clinic in New Haven, Connecticut. Participants completed standardized assessments of drug- and sex-related risk behaviors, neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. We found a high prevalence of current ownership and use of mobile technologies, such as cell phone (91.5%) including smartphone (63.5%). Participants used mobile technologies to communicate mostly through phone calls (M = 4.25, SD = 1.24), followed by text messages (M = 4.21, SD = 1.29). Participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (72.3%), receive information about HIV (65.8%), and to assess drug-related (72.3%) and sex-related behaviors (64.8%). Furthermore, participants who were neurocognitively impaired were more likely to use cell phone without internet and show considerable interest in using mHealth as compared to those without NCI. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence that mHealth-based programs, specifically cell phone text messaging-based health programs, may be acceptable to this high-risk population.
TitleAttitudes, Beliefs, and Willingness Toward the Use of mHealth Tools for Medication Adherence in the Florida mHealth Adherence Project for People Living With HIV (FL-mAPP): Pilot Questionnaire Study.
AuthorsMorano, JP; Clauson, K; Zhou, Z; Escobar-Viera, CG; Lieb, S; Chen, IK; Kirk, D; Carter, WM; Ruppal, M; Cook, RL
JournalJMIR mHealth and uHealth
Publication Date3 Jul 2019
Date Added to PubMed5 Jul 2019
AbstractAntiretroviral (ART) adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) continues to be a challenge despite advances in HIV prevention and treatment. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are increasingly deployed as tools for ART adherence. However, little is known about the uptake and attitudes toward commercially available, biprogrammatic mobile apps (ie, designed for both smartphone and short message service [SMS] messaging) among demographically diverse PLWH. The Florida mHealth Adherence Project for PLWH (FL-mAPP) is an innovative pilot study that aimed to determine the acceptability of a commercially available, biprogrammatic mHealth intervention platform to ensure medication adherence and gauge the current attitudes of PLWH toward current and future mHealth apps. A predeveloped, commercially available, biprogrammatic mHealth platform (Care4Today Mobile Health Manager, Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ) was deployed, with self-reported ART adherence recorded in the app and paper survey at both short term (30-day) or long-term (90-day) follow-ups. Consented participants completed baseline surveys on sociodemographics and attitudes, beliefs, and willingness toward the use of mHealth interventions for HIV care using a 5-point Likert scale. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified correlations with successful uptake of the mHealth platform. Among 132 PLWH, 66% (n=87) initially agreed to use the mHealth platform, of which 54% (n=47) successfully connected to the platform. Of the 87 agreeing to use the mHealth platform, we found an approximate 2:1 ratio of persons agreeing to try the smartphone app (n=59) versus the SMS text messages (n=28). Factors correlating with mHealth uptake were above high school level education (adjusted odds ratio 2.65; P=.05), confidence that a clinical staff member would assist with mHealth app use (adjusted odds ratio 2.92, P=.048), belief that PLWH would use such an mHealth app (adjusted odds ratio 2.89; P=.02), and ownership of a smartphone in contrast to a "flip-phone" model (adjusted odds ratio 2.80; P=.05). Of the sample, 70.2% (n=92) reported daily interest in receiving medication adherence reminders via an app (80.4% users versus 64.7% nonusers), although not significantly different among the user groups (P=.06). In addition, 34.8% (n=16) of mHealth users reported a theoretical "daily" interest and 68.2% (n=58) of non-mHealth users reported no interest in using an mHealth app for potentially tracking alcohol or drug intake (P=.002). This commercially available, biprogrammatic mHealth platform showed feasibility and efficacy for enhanced ART and medication adherence within public health clinics and successfully included older age groups. Successful use of the platform among demographically diverse PLWH is important for HIV implementation science and promising for uptake on a larger scale.
TitleTelemedicine as a tool for PrEP delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic in a large HIV prevention service in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil.
AuthorsHoagland, B; Torres, TS; Bezerra, DRB; Geraldo, K; Pimenta, C; Veloso, VG; Grinsztejn, B
JournalThe Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Publication Date1 Dec
Date Added to PubMed7 Jun 2020
AbstractCOVID-19 public health responses such as social distancing and community containment measures protocols are critical to preventing and containing the spread of coronavirus. Brazil accounts for almost half of Latin American HIV cases and Rio de Janeiro is the city with the second largest number of AIDS. Clinical appointments and pharmacy antiretroviral refills may be impaired due to restricted traffic and possible lockdowns, preventing people living with HIV and those using PrEP from accessing needed antiretrovirals. We hereby describe the telemedicine procedures implemented in a large PrEP delivery service in Rio de janeiro in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the initial teleconsultation, individuals undergoe HIV rapid testing and are assessed by phone for PrEP related procedures. Individuals receive a digital prescription to retrieve a 120-day PrEP supply plus two HIV self-test kits. Subsequent follow-up teleconsultations will be performed remotely by phone call, including instructions for the HIV self-test performance, which results are to be sent using a digital picture. Participants will attend the service only for PrEP refill. The use of telemedicine procedures is being effective to avoid PrEP shortage and reduce the time PrEP users spend at the service during the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing recommendations.
TitleeHealth and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.
AuthorsJohn-Stewart, G
JournalCurrent HIV/AIDS reports
Publication Date1 Aug 2018
Date Added to PubMed23 Jun 2018
AbstractThe goal of this paper is to describe areas in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs that could benefit from ehealth and to summarize current evidence of ehealth effectiveness in PMTCT. PMTCT programs require maternal retention, adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), and return for infant diagnosis of HIV. eHealth systems for PMTCT could either be integrated within MCH ehealth systems or within HIV adherence ehealth systems. PMTCT ehealth messages need to balance maternal concerns about pregnancy, childbirth, and infant care with need for clinic retention and ART adherence for PMTCT. Health approaches currently being assessed for effects on PMTCT outcomes include SMS, phone reminders, and integration of laboratory results and health worker reminders. Randomized trials are ongoing to determine effect of PMTCT ehealth interventions on retention, adherence, viral suppression, and early infant diagnosis (EID). There is evidence that ehealth for PMTCT improves early retention and EID, while data on long-term outcomes are accruing. PMTCT ehealth interventions may be useful to enhance maternal retention and ART adherence and decrease risk of infant HIV infection. Ongoing clinical trials will be important to determine effectiveness of mhealth approaches in improving PMTCT outcomes.
MNCHFPRHHIV/AIDSMalariaNoncommunicable diseaseCOVID-19Decision-makingEducation & trainingBehavior changeGovernancePrivacy & securityEquityCHWsYouth & adolescentsSystematic reviewsProtocols & research designMedical RecordsLaboratoryPharmacyHuman ResourcesmHealthSMSChatbotsAI