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TitleExpansion of Telemedicine Services: Telepharmacy, Telestroke, Teledialysis, Tele-Emergency Medicine.
AuthorsKane-Gill, SL; Rincon, F
JournalCritical care clinics
Publication Date1 Jul 2019
Date Added to PubMed12 May 2019
AbstractAs more specialized care gets centralized in centers of excellence, patients admitted to rural hospitals may be at a disadvantage at the time of accessing expertise or receiving advanced care. In this setting, telemedicine models provide a justification to equalize care across different levels. The diversity in telemedicine services is vast and is expanding. Even with all the subsets of telemedicine, including telepharmacy, telestroke, teledialysis, and tele-emergency medicine, the reasons for providing services and associated limitations are similar. However, there is a lack of empirical research including best practices and resultant outcomes for these subsets of telemedicine models.
TitleEvaluation of Telepharmacy Services in Light of COVID-19.
AuthorsMohamed Ibrahim, O; Ibrahim, RM; Abdel-Qader, DH; Al Meslamani, AZ; Al Mazrouei, N
JournalTelemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Publication Date1 Jun 2021
Date Added to PubMed9 Oct 2020
AbstractBackground: Telepharmacy services are expected to have an important role in increasing access of patients to pharmaceutical care and reducing potential dispensing errors in community pharmacies. Objective: To assess the predictors for effective telepharmacy services on increasing access of patients to care and reducing dispensing errors in community pharmacies. Method: This is a prospective study carried out for 4 months in 52 community pharmacies across the United Arab Emirates (UAE) using disguised direct observation. Multivariable logistic regression was used as a tool to predict factors associated with effective telepharmacy services in improving dispensing safety and increasing access of patients to pharmaceutical care. Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 26. Results: Pharmacist recommendations related to COVID-19 at pharmacies with telepharmacy (n = 63,714) versus those without remote services (n = 15,539) were significantly more likely to be (1) contact the nearest testing center (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.93), (2) maintain home quarantine (AOR = 5.64), and (3) take paracetamol for fever (AOR = 3.53), all were significant results (p < 0.05). Rates of medication dispensing errors (MDEs) and its subcategories, prescription-related errors, and pharmacist counseling errors across pharmacies with telepharmacy versus those without remote services were (15.81% vs. 19.43%, p < 0.05), (5.38% vs. 10.08%, p < 0.05), and (10.42% vs. 9.35%, p > 0.05), respectively. However, pharmacies with telepharmacy were more likely to include wrong patient errors (AOR = 5.38, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Telepharmacy can be used as a tool to reduce the burden on the health care system and improve drug dispensing safety in community pharmacies.
TitleTelepharmacy: A New Paradigm for Our Profession.
AuthorsLe, T; Toscani, M; Colaizzi, J
JournalJournal of pharmacy practice
Publication Date1 Apr 2020
Date Added to PubMed1 Aug 2018
AbstractTelepharmacy is a rapidly growing area of communication within pharmaceutical care delivery, especially in rural areas. The purpose of this literature review is to determine how telepharmacy is currently being practiced within community and ambulatory pharmacy settings, its effectiveness, and how it is being regulated across the United States. A literature review was performed using PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Google search engine. State-specific rules were researched using board of pharmacy and legislative online resources. Telepharmacy has been successfully implemented within community pharmacy settings through the creation of remote dispensing sites. The increasing focus of state regulations on telepharmacy services and practices shows the growth and acceptance of this modality of pharmacy practice. There is wide variation among state regulations pertaining to the setup and operation of telepharmacies. Trends in telemedicine show that telepharmaceutical care is likely to continue to expand as it allows for a better allocation of resources and access to more patients. However, research needs to be conducted to specifically analyze the value and place for telepharmacy services.
TitleTelepharmacy Services: Present Status and Future Perspectives: A Review.
AuthorsBaldoni, S; Amenta, F; Ricci, G
JournalMedicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
Publication Date1 Jul 2019
Date Added to PubMed4 Jul 2019
AbstractBackground and Objectives: The term "telepharmacy" indicates a form of pharmaceutical care in which pharmacists and patients are not in the same place and can interact using information and communication technology (ICT) facilities. Telepharmacy has been adopted to provide pharmaceutical services to underserved areas and to address the problem of pharmacist shortage. This paper has reviewed the multi-faceted phenomenon of telepharmacy, summarizing different experiences in the area. Advantages and limitations of telepharmacy are discussed as well. Materials and Methods: A literature analysis was carried out on PubMed, using as entry term "telepharmacy" and including articles on the topic published between 2012 and 2018. Results: The studies reviewed were divided into three categories of pharmacy practice, namely (1) support to clinical services, (2) remote education and handling of "special pharmacies", and (3) prescription and reconciliation of drug therapies. In general, different telepharmacy services were effective and accompanied by a satisfaction of their targets. Conclusions: Nowadays, the shortage of health personnel, and in particular pharmacists, is a challenging issue that the health systems have to face. The use of a new technology such as telepharmacy can represent a possible option to solve these problems. However, there are unsolved limitations (e.g., legal implications) that make greater diffusion of telepharmacy difficult. Stronger data on the effectiveness of this area of pharmacy care, together with a critical evaluation of its limits, can make actors involved aware about the potentialities of it and could contribute to a larger diffusion of telepharmacy services in the interest of communities and citizens.
TitleTelemedicine Practice: Review of the Current Ethical and Legal Challenges.
AuthorsNittari, G; Khuman, R; Baldoni, S; Pallotta, G; Battineni, G; Sirignano, A; Amenta, F; Ricci, G
JournalTelemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Publication Date1 Dec 2020
Date Added to PubMed13 Feb 2020
AbstractBackground: Telemedicine involves medical practice and information and communications technology. It has been proven to be very effective for remote health care, especially in areas with poor provision of health facilities. However, implementation of these technologies is often hampered by various issues. Among these, ethical and legal concerns are some of the more complex and diverse ones. In this study, an analysis of scientific literature was carried out to identify the ethical and legal challenges of telemedicine. Materials and Methods: English literature, published between 2010 and 2019, was searched on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science by using keywords, including "Telemedicine," "Ethics," "Malpractice," "Telemedicine and Ethics," "Telemedicine and Informed consent," and "telemedicine and malpractice." Different types of articles were analyzed, including research articles, review articles, and qualitative studies. The abstracts were evaluated according to the selection criteria, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale criteria, and the final analysis led to the inclusion of 22 articles. Discussion: From the aforementioned sample, we analyzed elements that may be indicative of the efficacy of telemedicine in an adequate time frame. Ethical aspects such as informed consent, protection data, confidentiality, physician's malpractice, and liability and telemedicine regulations were considered. Conclusions: Our objective was to highlight the current status and identify what still needs to be implemented in telemedicine with respect to ethical and legal standards. Gaps emerged between current legislation, legislators, service providers, different medical services, and most importantly patient interaction with his/her data and the use of that data.
TitleTelepharmacy for the management of cardiovascular patients in the community.
AuthorsOmboni, S; Tenti, M
JournalTrends in cardiovascular medicine
Publication Date1 Feb 2019
Date Added to PubMed25 Jul 2018
AbstractTelepharmacy is devised to provide pharmacy operations and patient care at a distance and to expand access to healthcare, enhance patients' safety and improve patient outcomes. A variety of technologies, models of care and interventions are used to develop and provide telepharmacy services, serving diversified populations with different pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, very few randomized controlled studies have evaluated the clinical efficacy of the implementation of telepharmacy services in the management of various cardiovascular conditions, with the strongest evidence being limited to telemonitoring studies in the areas of hypertension and diabetes. Although the clinical efficacy of telepharmacy, and its cost effectiveness, are far from being fully proved, the inclusion of telepharmacy services in healthcare models may offer the unique opportunity to increase access to screening and improve care of cardiovascular conditions.
TitleMedication safety in a German telemedicine centre: Implementation of a telepharmaceutical expert consultation in addition to existing tele-intensive care unit services.
AuthorsAmkreutz, J; Lenssen, R; Marx, G; Deisz, R; Eisert, A
JournalJournal of telemedicine and telecare
Publication Date1 Dec
Date Added to PubMed27 Sep 2018
AbstractTele-intensive care unit (tele-ICU) services offer the possibility to provide specialized medical care in remote areas and to improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate an additional telepharmaceutical expert consultation as part of tele-ICU services. This is a prospective observational study conducted in the telemedicine centre of the University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany. Between March and July 2015, all tele-ICU patients of one internal and two remote ICUs received telepharmaceutical consultation. Number and type of drug related problems (DRPs) were identified in a comprehensive medication safety check. Implementation of DRPs was discussed interdisciplinarily by tele-ICU pharmacist, tele-ICU physician and remote ICU physician. Special focus was on drug–drug interactions (DDIs) and dosage adjustment in renal and liver failure. A total of 210 DRPs in 103 patients were identified and discussed. On average, 2.0 (range 0–17) DRPs per patient were found. At least one DRP was found in 62% of patients. Antibacterials for systemic use were most involved in DRPs. A total of 1129 DDI-alerts were generated by ID PHARMA CHECK®. Fifty-six DDIs (5%) were discussed in tele-ICU rounds. The tele-ICU team discussed 28 cases of dosage adjustment in organ failure. Telepharmaceutical consultation as part of tele-ICU services was successfully implemented and can improve medication safety. Telemedicine infrastructure provides the possibility to implement guidelines recommending pharmaceutical service in the ICU in remote hospitals not having access to clinical pharmacists. Thus, quality of care can be improved.
TitleUse of Telemedicine to Enhance Pharmacist Services in the Nursing Facility.
AuthorsKane-Gill, SL; Niznik, JD; Kellum, JA; Culley, CM; Boyce, RD; Marcum, ZA; He, H; Perera, S; Handler, SM
JournalThe Consultant pharmacist : the journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Publication Date1 Feb 2017
Date Added to PubMed2 Jun 2017
AbstractTo conduct a systematic literature review to determine what telemedicine services are provided by pharmacists and the impact of these services in the nursing facility setting. MEDLINE®, Scopus®, and Embase® databases. The terms "telemedicine" or "telehealth" were combined by "and" with the terms "pharmacist" or "pharmacy" to identify pharmacists' use of telemedicine. Also, "telepharmacy" was added as a search term. The initial search yielded 322 results. These abstracts were reviewed by two individuals independently, for selection of articles that discussed telemedicine and involvement of a pharmacist, either as the primary user of the service or as part of an interprofessional health care team. Those abstracts discussing the pharmacist service for purpose of dispensing or product preparation were excluded. A description of pharmacists' services provided and the impact on resident care. Only three manuscripts met inclusion criteria. One was a narrative proposition of the benefits of using telemedicine by senior care pharmacists. Two published original research studies indirectly assessed the pharmacists' use of telemedicine in the nursing facility through an anticoagulation program and an osteoporosis management service. Both services demonstrated improvement in patient care. There is a general paucity of practice-related research to demonstrate potential benefits of pharmacists' services incorporating telemedicine. Telemedicine may be a resource-efficient approach to enhance pharmacist services in the nursing facility and improve resident care.
TitleA Systematic Review of ICU and Non-ICU Clinical Pharmacy Services Using Telepharmacy.
AuthorsStrnad, K; Shoulders, BR; Smithburger, PL; Kane-Gill, SL
JournalThe Annals of pharmacotherapy
Publication Date1 Dec 2018
Date Added to PubMed10 Jul 2018
AbstractTo assess the impact of telepharmacy services in the acute care setting. EMBase, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS database searches were performed through April 2018. PRISMA guidelines were applied for this systematic review. All English-language studies meeting the criteria of the following population, intervention, comparison, and outcome question were included: What impact does the provision of inpatient clinical pharmacy services delivered via telemedicine have on patient outcomes compared with standard of care? A total of 11 studies were identified for the acute care setting, including 3 for critically ill patients. All studies demonstrated a positive impact on patient outcomes, nursing satisfaction, and disease management. Varying modes of telepharmacy technology were used, such as remote access to electronic medical records, faxing or scanning documents, pictures or webcams. For communication purposes, telepharmacists used email or electronic communication, facsimile, video review, or telephone to speak directly with hospital personnel and patients. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: Inpatient telepharmacy is feasible and should be leveraged to further enhance patient care by complementing existing service models. Telepharmacy services enhanced patient outcomes, improved nursing satisfaction, and expanded services within inpatient settings. Similar technologies were leveraged in non-intensive care units (ICUs) and ICUs, but the goals of telepharmacy appeared to differ. ICUs focused on an expansion of services in the ICU and non-ICUs addressed improved patient outreach in rural areas.
TitleTelepharmacy Rules and Statutes: A 50-State Survey.
AuthorsTzanetakos, G; Ullrich, F; Meuller, K
JournalRural policy brief
Publication Date1 Apr 2017
Date Added to PubMed19 Aug 2017
AbstractPurpose and Introduction. The purpose of this policy brief is to identify rules and laws enacted by states authorizing the use of community telepharmacy initiatives within their respective jurisdictions. Though telepharmacy exists in several forms, telepharmacy in this brief is defined as the delivery of pharmaceutical care to outpatients at a distance through the use of telecommunication and other advanced technologies. Pharmaceutical care includes, but is not limited to, drug review and monitoring, dispensing of medications, medication therapy management, and patient counseling. A significant advantage of telepharmacy is the ability to provide pharmacist access to patients in remote areas where a pharmacist is not physically available. Therefore, the implications of telepharmacy on increasing access to care are significant, particularly to patients in underserved rural communities, though it is important to note that underserved populations do not exist exclusively in rural settings. Key Findings. (1) The use of telepharmacy is authorized, in varying capacities, in 23 states (46 percent). (2) Pilot program development that could apply to telepharmacy initiatives is authorized by six states (12 percent). (3) Waivers to administrative or legislative pharmacy practice requirements that could allow for telepharmacy initiatives are permitted in five states (10 percent). (4) Nearly one-third of the states (16, or 32 percent) do not authorize the use of telepharmacy, nor do they currently have the ability to pursue telepharmacy initiatives via pilot programs or waivers.
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